Portuguese Studies Review

ISSN 1057-1515
Semi-annual
Appearing since 1991
Formerly published by the ICGP (International Conference Group on Portugal)
The PSR is an international academic forum for the study of countries, regions, communities, and institutions sharing, exploring, transforming, or developing a Portuguese, Brazilian, or other Luso-related heritage  
Multi-lingual peer-reviewed research journal. Articles, review essays, and book reviews in English, Portuguese, French, and Spanish    
     

PSR Monograph Series

The Military Orders and the Portuguese Expansion (15th to 17th Centuries)
Fernanda Olival


Portuguese Studies Review Monograph Series, No. 3. Toronto and Peterborough: Baywolf Press / Éditions Baywolf, 2018. Engl. trans. by James William Nelson Novoa and Martin Malcolm Elbl. 216 pages (x +206, incl. frt./back matter); 2 ills. (maps); Appendices; Bibliography; Index; 9" x 6.5", w/ laminated dust jacket; list price: $ 32.30 CAD ; ISBN 978-0-921437-54-3 (soft-cover). In stock. Shipping from Peterborough, Ontario, CANADA.



tangier architecture
OCLC Subject Tags:
1. Order of Christ; 2. Military religious orders--Portugal--History--15th century; 3. Military religious orders--Portugal--History--16th century; 4. Military religious orders--Portugal--History--17th century; 5. Portugal--History, Military--15th century; 6. Portugal--History, Military--16th century; 7. Portugal--History, Military--17th century;
Identifier: ISBN: 9780921437543 ; ISBN: 0921437543
978-0-921437-54-3 (pbk.)
Library Call Number: CR5907.O4513 2018
C2018-906036-0
255'.79109469



The Military Orders and the Portuguese Expansion (15th to 17th Centuries)
, a new book by Fernanda Olival, deconstructs the hitherto dominant thesis of a major involvement by the Portuguese Military Orders in the unfolding of the Portuguese Expansion to North Africa and across the seas. In fact, from the fifteenth century onward these rich institutions typically refused to wage war as corporate entities, despite appeals to this effect by kings and popes. The author shows that the patronage of the Order of Christ over ecclesiastical appointments across a vast swath of the globe resulted from a circumstantial interplay of Portuguese diplomatic interests, and was not very effective even during the peak period of 1456−1514. The creation of the bishopric of Funchal (1514), which served as a model for other Portuguese overseas bishoprics, marked a rupture and transformed the emergent pattern associated with the Order of Christ into a very limited presence. In the sixteenth century, when overseas bishops were authorized to appoint clerics, this did not mean that clergy born in colonial areas enjoyed expanded access to vicarial posts. Their struggle over appointments was intense, began in 1513, and endured into the eighteenth century. The patronage of the Order of Christ was only maintained because the kings, as Masters of the Order from 1495 onward, had a keen interest in overseas tithes. Such funds namely covered many expenses other than strictly ecclesiastical ones. With the end of Portuguese maritime protectionism (mare clausum policy), the Iberian patronage mechanism faced vigorous competition from missionaries sent out by the Roman Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (a congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for missionary work). Such competition paradoxically helped to preserve the Portuguese pattern of ecclesiastical patronage, characterized by a continued nominal involvement of the Order of Christ.

Le nouvel ouvrage de Fernanda Olival, The Military Orders and the Portuguese Expansion (15th to 17th Centuries), déconstruit la thèse jusqu'alors bien répandue que les Ordres militaires et religieux portugais ont joué un rôle clé dans l'expansion portugaise en Afrique du Nord et outre-mer. En fait, à partir du XVe siècle, ces institutions bien dotées refusèrent en général de faire la guerre en tant que corporations, malgré des appels lancés à cet effet par les rois et les papes. L'auteur montre que le patronage (padroado) de l'Ordre du Christ quant aux nominations ecclésiastiques dans un vaste espace géographique résultait d'un jeu circonstanciel d'intérêts diplomatiques portugais. Ce patronage n'était pas très efficace même à l'époque de son apogée, de 1456 à 1514. La création de l'évêché de Funchal (1514), qui servit de modèle à d'autres évêchés portugais d'outre-mer, marqua une rupture. Le modèle émergent lié à l'Ordre du Christ se mua en une présence et emprise bien limitées. Lorsque les évêques d'outre-mer furent autorisés à nommer et investir des religieux au XVIe siècle, ceci n'impliquait pas que les membres du clergé nés dans les zones coloniales bénéficiaient ipso facto d'un accès élargi aux postes de vicariat. Leur lutte pour nominations fut intense; commençant en 1513, elle se poursuivit jusqu'au XVIIIe siècle. Le patronage de l'Ordre du Christ ne fut maintenu que parce que les rois du Portugal, en tant que Maîtres de l'Ordre à partir de 1495, s'intéressaient vivement aux dîmes d'outre-mer. Ces fonds couvraient notamment de nombreuses dépenses autres que celles d'un ordre strictement religieux. Avec la fin du protectionnisme maritime portugais (la politique de mare clausum), les mécanismes du patronage ibérique connurent une vive concurrence de la part des missionnaires envoyés par Rome et la Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (une congrégation de la Curie romaine chargée de l'œuvre missionnaire). Paradoxalement, cette concurrence contribua à maintenir le patronage ecclésiastique portugais, caractérisé par un rôle nominal continu de l'Ordre du Christ.

Relevancy Profiling Tags: Order of Christ -- Order of Santiago -- Order of Avis -- Portuguese military orders; Portuguese overseas expansion -- history; military history -- Portugal and overseas areas; monastic history -- Portugal; administrative and fiscal history -- Portugal and overseas areas; ecclesiastical administration; Crown policies and strategies -- fiscal -- administrative -- Portugal and overseas areas; right of appointment to ecclesiastical offices (patronage -- padroado); bishoprics and archbishprics -- Portugal and overseas; diocesan history; Atlantic history; history of Atlantic islands -- settlement and administration; Maghrib (North Africa) -- Portuguese outposts; revenue and allocation of resources; Papal policy; Castile and Portugal -- international relations; social strategies and mobility; economy of rewards -- Early Modern Portugal; management of political and social incentives.



 

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